Fabric dye is a colored substance that helps the fibres and materials to be colored.it bonds chemically to the material. It makes fabric dyes different from pigments.It is easily soluble in water.Natural fabric dyes can be divided into three types. They are animal,plant,mineral dyes. fabric dyes are derived from plants, animals or minerals. The source of natural dyes are roots,nuts,flowers, insects, berries,leaves,wood,fungi,etc.The majority of natural dyes that are used in the fashion industry. Vegetable dyes that are derived from plant sources. It is mostly used in the fashion and textile industry.
Animal derived dyes
- Animal derived dyes are taken from animals.
- Carmine is derived from cochlear.
- It is a scale insect and red dyes are obtained from it.
- The Indian yellow color is derived from the urine of cattle.
- The red and violet dyes are taken from lac insects.
- Purple derived from murex snails.luxury dyestuff needed thousands of snails.it was labour intensive to extract dyes.
- Crimson is produced from dried bodies of kernel insect.It was 12 times more expensive to produce.
- Sepia brown is obtained from octopus.
Plant derived dyes
- Plant based dyes are taken from stems,roots,flowers,fruits of plants.
- Plant based dyes like saffron,indigo ,wood ,and madder are commercially produced.
- Yellow color dye taken from Himalayan rhubarb root yields .It is a flowering herb. It is used for medicinal uses.
- Saffron is derived from crocus sativus flower . It produces rich golden yellow.
- It is used for dyes,seasoning,fragrances, and medicine. Saffron is the most expensive spice in the world.
- Brown color is derived from cutch tree.it is extracted from acacia trees. It can be used for dye,food additives,tannin,etc.
- Deep saffron to dark mustard yellow taken from gamboge tree resin.
- Green,dark brown, brown ,crimson ,purple dyes are derived from mangosteen peels.It is an edible fruit.
- Blue dyes are derived from indigofera plants . Dyes extracted from its plants.
- Red dyes are taken from kamala trees.
- Aliasing extracted from madder root,we will get red,pink,orange color dyes.
- Yellow is derived from larkspur plants.
- Curcumin extracted from turmeric.
- Crimson to maroon dyes derived from teak leaves.Teak is tropical hardware tree.
- Yellow ,green, black dyes derived from Indian gooseberry.
- Brown,black dyes derived from walnut tree.
- Yellow dye is derived from pomegranate peel.
- Mineral dyes are used in the production of carpets.
- Yellow,red,brown color dyes are derived from ochre. Ochre is iron ore,it is earth Mineral oxide.
- Black color derived from manganese.
- Green color dye derived from malachite. It is the mixture of copper carbonate and copper hydroxide.
- Blue is derived from azure.it is a copper mineral
- Blue derived from lapis lazuli. It is a blue rock.it is the mixture of calcite,azurite, pyroxenite,etc.
- Red is taken from cinnabar. It is reddish heavy mineral.
- Red is taken from lead.
- White color derived from aragonite.
Synthetic fabric dyes
- It is man made dyes.
- It is derived from petrochemicals.
- Thousands of Synthetic dyes are available in the market
- It can easily be produced in large quantities.
- It is suitable for dyeing Synthetic fibers.
- Some chemicals in the Synthetic dyes are copper,chromium,benzene, lead,mercury,etc.
Natural Dyes are more muted.synthetic dyes look stark and garish. Synthetic dyes have a wide,brighter color.its color long lasting. Natural dyes are less destructive.but Synthetic dyes cause health problems, water pollution. Natural dyes are expensive. Synthetic dyes are cheaper, easier to produce. Dyes are put into a pot of water and brought up to boiling point. Then fiber is added to the pot and stirred until the color has been absorbed.
Different processes are used for fiber,yarn,fabric required before and after the dyeing process.After the application of dye in the water, a mordant is required to fix fabric dye to the fiber .
Home made fabric dyes
- You can use wool
- You can use onion skin.Boiled onion skin in water,add 100% merino wool.
- Carrot peeling provides bright Orange wool.
We can see how to use dyes in old clothes. It is very helpful.
- Fabric color
- Hot water
Buy fabric colour from the market. Take a new bucket and mix dye color,salt and hot water to it.Mix well Then soak the cloth in it. And mix well.Then place this cloth for 2 to 3 hours.Wash this cloth in normal water.Then dry it well in the shaded area.